C Sharp (C#) is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. C# encompasses declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
The C# programming language was designed by Anders Hejlsberg from Microsoft in 2000. Microsoft introduced C# along with .NET Framework and Visual Studio, both of which were closed-source. At the time, Microsoft had no open-source products. A decade later, Microsoft released Visual Studio Code (code editor), Roslyn (compiler), and the unified .NET platform (software framework), all of which support C# and are free, open-source, and cross-platform. As of now, the most recent stable version of the language is C# 10.0, which was released in 2021 in .NET 6.0.
As an object-oriented language, C# supports the concepts of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. A class may inherit directly from one parent class, and it may implement any number of interfaces. The core syntax of the C# language is similar to that of other C-style languages such as C, C++ and Java:
- Semicolons are used to denote the end of a statement.
- Curly brackets are used to group statements.
- Statements are commonly grouped into methods (functions), methods into classes, and classes into namespaces.
- Variables are assigned using an equals sign, but compared using two consecutive equals signs.
- Square brackets are used with arrays, both to declare them and to get a value at a given index in one of them.
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